The past: history of Chianti wine

To trace the history of the grapevine and its precious nectar we must go back to the Etruscan era. In fact, the grapevine arrived in Italy and specifically in the Chianti region of Tuscany thanks to them, as evidenced by some Attic pots from the 6th century BC found in Castellina in Chianti.

Etruscan-dish-showing-making-wine-from-grapes
Etruscan dish showing making wine from grapes

We do not know exactly which wines were produced at that time, but we know that most of Tuscany was cultivated with grapevines.

The wine culture then continued generously during the Roman Empire and survived even after the barbarian devastation, thanks to the commitment of the Benedictine and Vallombrosian monks.

These religious orders pursued, together with the care of the spirit also that of the countryside cultivated with grapevines and olive trees, pushing the populations to take care of the fields and taking care of the production of oil and wine: to them the merit of having spread the culture of the grapevine starting from the abbeys like Coltibuono and Passignano.

Starting in the year 1000, the specialized grapevine culture, which was raised in low rows, spread everywhere, both in the lands of the monks as well as in those ones of the secular clergy and of the lay lords.

To protect them from thieves and cattle were often placed vegetable gardens and closures and sometimes even the town walls. So great was the concern with the vineyard that no stranger was allowed to enter and the damage eventually caused was severely punished, even with torture if the grapevine was destroyed.

At that time the wine produced was affected by heavy taxation and the quality had to be paid based on the assessments of the land registry.

From wine of the rich to wine of the people

Poggiovalle Tenuta
Poggiovalle Estate vineyard in Tuscany (Italy)

The word “Chianti” appears for the first time in a parchment from 790, while the first parchments referring to the vinification in Chianti date back to 913 and were found in the church of Santa Cristina in Lucignano.

We will have to wait until 1023 to get news of the concession of working and vineyard lands to a settler who undertakes to improve them in Grignano, near Florence.

It was in the Middle Ages, in fact, that the Chianti wine vocation, in the wake of the teachings of the monks, became manifest: as early as the 12th century, families whose names would have remained famous for a long time, such as the Ricasoli (producers of wine since 1141) and the Antinori (wine producers from 1385) started their wine production.

The road leading to the birth of the Municipalities is closely related to the continuous growth of wine production: the wine trade constitutes an important source of wealth, which strengthens power and control over the territory.

Witness, for example, the foundation in Florence towards the second half of the Two-Hundred, of the Art of Vinattieri, the most important of the Minor Arts, accompanied by the opening of taverns and wine cellars.

The habit of drinking wine, at that time, spread quickly and from a luxury product, the prerogative of noble tables, wine soon became a popular drink: it was present in all houses, from those of the rich to those of the peasants.

It was considered a real food and historical sources document that it was even used as a medicine to treat the sick.

We know from medieval documents that Chianti was known since then for its freshness and verve, characteristics derived from the ancient and particular vinification which required the addition of raisins to remove impurities and egg whites, almonds and salt to clear it, and finally pepper and rose petals to give it a nice color.

A wine to protect

Since the 1400s, when the excellence of Chianti wine was already evident, the need to protect it was imposed, protecting its name and quality. One of the first provisions in this sense was the prohibition by the Chianti League in 1444 to harvest before September 29th, the festivity of Saint Michael.

Subsequently penalties were established for those who counterfeited the original product or altered the seal.

A turning point came in 1716 when Grand Duke Cosimo III issued provisions, rules and controls to regulate production, sale and name; the boundaries of the various areas and the penalties for illegal trading and counterfeiting were also established.

Georgofili Accademy
Georgofili Accademy

But we have to wait until the second half of the eighteenth century so that the Georgofili Accademy (founded in Florence on June 4, 1753) began to experiment with the mixing of different types of grapes, identifying their characteristics before proceeding to vinification.

A further push to control processing and blends is due to the so-called Iron Baron, a historical figure in the Chianti area. In fact, Bettino Ricasoli demanded the separation of the grape stalks from the marc, the fermentation in closed pots and a rapid wine racking followed by the Government of Tuscan Use.

Only in 1874 did it come to define the Chianti blend to which it was inspired the current specification issued in 1984, over a century later.

At that time, Chianti was composed of the following grapes: Sangiovese for 70%, Canaiolo for 15%, Trebbiano and Malvasia for 10%, and the remaining 5% for Mammolo and Colorino. Composition that earned Chianti the first gold medal at the international exhibition in Paris.

On May 14, 1924, 33 producers in the Chianti area founded a consortium, then called Black Rooster, with the aim of protecting Chianti wine and its brand. Its symbol was the Black Rooster in a gold field (already symbol of the ancient Chianti League), whose origin is linked to an ancient and famous legend.

The wine of artists and poets

After the Medici peace, the Florentines began to look at the countryside as a source of investment and profit. Even Michelangelo bought houses and farms in Chianti region and personally took care of wine production.

Machiavelli in 1512 sought refuge in the estates he owned in Chianti area after being accused of conspiring against the Medici, in

Florence Bridge Tuscany
Florence Bridge Tuscany

particular in Sant’Andrea in Percussina, in whose rooms The Prince would have written.

On his farm in Castellina in Chianti, Galieo Galilei (1464-1642) also took refuge to forget the conflicts with the scientific world of that time and the accusations of heresy.

Later also Verdi (1813-1901) will appreciate the wine of these lands, if the wife Giuseppina Strepponi wrote to a friend “Verdi is fine, eat, run for the garden, sleep and drink Chianti”.

We conclude this tale on the history of this very celebrated and prestigious wine with the words of the great American wine expert and winemaker Burton Anderson: “Chianti stands out by far as the greatest of wines and holds the most famous wine in the world, even more of Champagne and Bordeaux ”.

Today Chianti is the most widespread and famous Italian wine in the world, both in Italy and abroad, where it is very well known and appreciated everywhere, both in the large traditional international markets such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany, as well as in Asia and especially in China.

 

Written y: Diego Vita Sommelier

 

 


 

See also article: The Chianti speaks and writes chinese, it also conquers China and becomes Shiandi

Asia Chianti
Asia Chianti

 

 

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过去:基安蒂的历史

要追溯葡萄树及其珍贵的花蜜的历史,我们必须回到伊特鲁里亚时代。实际上,得益于它们,葡萄藤抵达了意大利,特别是托斯卡纳的基安蒂地区,这在公元前6世纪在基安蒂的卡斯特利纳(Castellina)发现的一些阁楼盆就证明了这一点。

我们不确切知道当时生产哪种葡萄酒,但是我们知道托斯卡纳的大部分地区都是用葡萄栽培的。

此后,由于本尼迪克特和​​瓦隆博罗僧侣的奉献,葡萄酒文化在罗马帝国期间大度延续,甚至在野蛮人毁灭后得以幸存。

这些宗教秩序,以及精神的追求,以及葡萄藤和橄榄树种植的乡村的精神追求,推动着人们去照顾田野,并照顾石油和葡萄酒的生产:对他们而言,拥有从Coltibuono和Passignano等修道院开始传播葡萄的文化。

从公元1000年开始,专门的葡萄栽培在低矮的行列中广泛传播,遍及僧侣,世俗神职人员和贵族领地。

为了保护他们免受盗贼和牛的侵害,经常在菜园里加封场,有时甚至在城墙旁。对葡萄园的担忧是如此之大,以至于不允许任何陌生人进入,并且即使葡萄树被毁坏,即使遭受酷刑,也要严惩最终造成的损害。

当时生产的葡萄酒受到重税的影响,必须根据土地注册处的评估来支付质量。

从富人之酒到人民之酒

“基安蒂”一词首次出现在790年的羊皮纸上,而最早提到基安蒂葡萄酒的羊皮纸可以追溯到913年,并在卢西尼亚诺的圣克里斯蒂娜教堂发现。

我们将不得不等到1023年,才能向定居者提供有关工作和葡萄园土地特许权的消息,该定居者承诺改善佛罗伦萨附近格里尼亚诺的土地。

实际上,在中世纪,随着僧侣们的教wake,基安蒂葡萄酒的职业就变得很明显:早在12世纪,那些名字曾长期存在的家庭,例如Ricasoli(1141年以来生产葡萄酒)和Antinori(1385年以来生产葡萄酒)开始了葡萄酒生产。

直辖市的诞生之路与葡萄酒产量的持续增长密切相关:葡萄酒贸易是重要的财富来源,可以增强对该地区的权力和控制。

例如,见证人在佛罗伦萨建立了“ Vinattieri艺术”,即“小艺术”中最重要的“ Vinattieri艺术”,即两百年下半年的基础,同时还开设了小酒馆和酒窖。

当时,喝酒的习惯迅速传播开来,并从一种贵族餐桌特权的奢侈品开始,葡萄酒很快成为一种流行的饮料:从富人到农民的所有房屋中都存在这种酒。

它被认为是真实的食物,历史文献证明它甚至被用作治疗病人的药物。

从中世纪的文献中我们知道,基安蒂(Chianti)从那时起就以其新鲜和神韵着称,其特性源自古老而又特别的酿酒工艺,需要加入葡萄干以除去杂质和蛋清,杏仁和盐以将其清除,最后是胡椒和玫瑰花瓣给它一个漂亮的颜色。

保护葡萄酒

自1400年代以来,当基安蒂(Chianti)葡萄酒的卓越性已很明显时,就提出了保护它的要求,以保护其名称和质量。从这个意义上说,第一个规定是基安蒂同盟在1444年禁止在9月29日(圣迈克尔的节日)之前收割。

随后对假冒原始产品或更改印章的人制定了处罚措施。

1716年,科西莫三世大公发布了规定生产,销售和名称的规定,规则和控制措施,这是一个转折点。还确定了各个地区的边界以及对非法交易和伪造的处罚。

乔治费里学院
但是我们必须等到18世纪下半叶,Georgofili Accademy(1753年6月4日成立于佛罗伦萨)才开始尝试混合不同类型的葡萄,在进行葡萄酒酿造之前先确定其特性。

基安蒂地区的历史人物“铁男爵”进一步推动了控制加工和混合的步伐。实际上,贝蒂诺·里卡索利(Bettino Ricasoli)要求将葡萄秸秆与马克分开,在密闭的罐中发酵,并迅速装瓶,然后由托斯卡纳政府使用。

直到1874年,它才开始定义基安蒂(Chianti)混合酒,一个世纪后的1984年发布的最新规格启发了它。

当时,基安蒂由以下葡萄组成:桑娇维塞占70%,卡奈约洛占15%,特雷比亚诺和马尔瓦西亚占10%,马莫洛和卡罗蒂诺占5%。构成让基安蒂在巴黎国际展览会上获得第一枚金牌。

1924年5月14日,基安蒂地区的33个生产商成立了一个财团,当时称为黑公鸡,旨在保护基安蒂葡萄酒及其品牌。它的标志是金田中的黑公鸡(已经是古代基安蒂同盟的标志),其起源与一个古老而著名的传说有关。

艺术家和诗人的葡萄酒

在美第奇和平之后,佛罗伦萨开始将乡村视为投资和利润的来源。甚至米开朗基罗在基安蒂地区购买了房屋和农场,并亲自负责葡萄酒的生产。

1512年,马基雅维利(Machiavelli)被指控串谋与美第奇(Medici)一起在基安蒂(Chianti)地区拥有的庄园避难。

特别是在珀库西纳(Percussina)的圣安德里亚(Sant’Andrea),《王子》将在他的房间里写作。

Galieo Galilei(1464-1642)在基安蒂卡斯特利纳(Castellina)的农场中,也躲避了与当时科学界的冲突和异端的指责。

后来,如果妻子朱塞佩娜·斯特雷波尼(Giuseppinga Strepponi)给朋友写信“威尔第很好,可以在花园里吃饭,跑步,睡觉和喝基安蒂酒”,威尔第(1813-1901)也将欣赏这些土地的葡萄酒。

我们以著名的美国葡萄酒专家和酿酒师伯顿·安德森(Burton Anderson)的话总结了这个非常著名和久负盛名的葡萄酒的历史,他说:更多香槟和波尔多”。

如今,基安蒂已经成为世界上最广为人知的意大利葡萄酒,无论是在意大利还是在国外,在美国,英国和德国等大型传统国际市场上,它都广为人知和赞赏。以及亚洲,尤其是中国

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